Monday, February 19, 2018

Belief analysis: a formal method

For this post, I created a formal method to analyze beliefs. The purpose of this method is to make beliefs more transparent. Here are the rules:

1. The belief should be stated using a single sentence
2. List the reasons why you think the belief is true
3. Reasons should be stated with phrase or a short sentence
4. Reasons should be labeled alphabetically
5. After each reason, list pieces of evidence to support that reason
6. Pieces of evidence should be either all quotes or all original writing
7. Each piece of evidence should be no longer than a few sentences
8. Each piece of evidence should be labeled numerically

Although this method can be applied to every branch of knowledge, I believe it is most useful for analyzing social issues. My vision is that opposing sides could use this method to communicate more effectively. If somebody disagreed with an argument, they could point to a specific reason or piece of evidence to refute. I believe this would be an improvement from the current state of affairs where arguments are highly unstructured and jumbled.

Sunday, January 21, 2018

Transparency and the world economy

I believe transparency is the goal every branch of knowledge. The goal of every scientist and researcher should be to shine light onto previously dark and unknown phenomena. The universe is complex and the goal of research is to make order out of it.

Econ Factbook is a economic data website that attempts to bring greater transparency to the world economy. To my knowledge, there is no other website that attempts to illustrate the world economy by organizing economic statistics into a concise format. There are of course websites like the World Bank Indicators and FRED that have tons of economic statistics, but they have not made an attempt to illustrate an economy in a concise format.

Today many laypersons think the economy is too complicated to be understood. They see an overwhelming amount of moving pieces and interconnected relationships. They see an unlimited amount of statistics with no understanding of their relative importance. I believe this confusion can be greatly alleviated by spending a few minutes on an Econ Factbook country page. The format is designed to eliminate excess statistics and only display the core structure of an economy. By focusing on the core structure, I believe one can find greater clarity when trying to comprehend an economy.

What can Econ Factbook be used for? It would be impossible to analyze an intricate economic issue with this website. Instead, I think this question can be best answered by analogy with a globe. Nobody says a globe is useless due to it's lack of direct practicality. Instead it's meant to be an educational tool to help people to better understand our home planet. I think the same idea should apply to Econ Factbook. The website is meant to help people have a better understanding of the outline of an economy.

The format of Econ Factbook is based on the circular flow of income model (diagram below). The format has a section for each of the five main sectors: households, companies, government, banks and the central bank. Each section has a few statistics to illustrate the condition of that sector. In addition to these sections, the format has a section for employment, industries and international accounts.

I will conclude this post with a list statistics to show the complete format.

Basic statistics
GDP per capita
GDP growth rate

Table of GDP by industry

Unemployment rate
Table of employment by industry

Table of the top 10 biggest companies ranked by revenue along with their profit and assets

Total household assets
Total household debt
Household wealth per adult
Gini coefficient (inequality indicator)

Central government total revenue and expenditure
Central government total debt
Central government 10 year bond rate
State and local government revenue and expenditure
State and local government debt
List of public funds and assets
Personal income tax rates and thresholds
Corporate tax rate
Table of central government revenue by source
Table of central government expenditure by source

Central bank
Money supply (M0)
Benchmark interest rate
Total reserves
Exchange rate
Inflation rate

Table of the top 10 biggest banks ranked by assets along with their revenue and profits

International accounts
Foreign direct investment inflow
Foreign direct investment outflow
Foreign aid inflow
Foreign aid outflow

Saturday, December 23, 2017

Why should rich people pay more taxes?

In the United States, I believe rich people should pay more taxes because there are too many neglected public services. This post is a follow up for an earlier post I did on reason. For this post I tried to weave together a web of concepts to support my position. There are 34 quotes divided into 8 sections:

A. Raising taxes on rich people will not hurt economic growth (4)
B. Rich people have accumulated an unprecedented amount of wealth (4)
C. Government finance must be audited to ensure transparency (3)
D. We should invest in building a strong middle class (5)
E. We should support our most vulnerable citizens (4)
F. Single-payer healthcare is the best solution (5)
G. We should accelerate innovation in critical technologies (4)
H. Public foreign aid is the best foreign policy (5)

A. Raising taxes on rich people will not hurt economic growth

Thomas Hungerford (economist)
1. "The results of the analysis suggest that changes over the past 65 years in the top marginal tax rate and the top capital gains tax rate do not appear correlated with economic growth [in the United States]. The reduction in the top tax rates appears to be uncorrelated with saving, investment, and productivity growth. The top tax rates appear to have little or no relation to the size of the economic pie." (Taxes and the Economy: An Economic Analysis of the Top Tax Rates Since 1945, 2012)

Gwynn Guilford (journalist)
2. "Cutting taxes on America's rich isn't going to encourage them to invest more - they already have plenty to spend and aren't spending it. Worse, by shifting wealth from middle class families to the moneyed few - a group that is able to consume far less than the working masses - this sort of policy suppresses consumption, which in turn discourages investment in productive businesses." (Almost everything Republicans get wrong about the economy started with a cocktail napkin in 1974, 2017)

Alana Semuels (journalist):
3. "[In the United States] between 1935 and 1982, the top tax rate did not dip below 70 percent. Part of this was due to a belief among those in charge that government had a role in combating extreme wealth." (Is the U.S. Due for Radically Raising Taxes for the Rich? 2016)

Thomas Hungerford (economist)
4. "The top marginal rate in the 1950s was over 90 percent and the real GDP growth rate averaged 4.2 percent and the real per capita GDP increased annually by 2.4 percent in the 1950s." (Taxes and the Economy: An Economic Analysis of the Top Tax Rates Since 1945, 2012)

B. Rich people have accumulated an unprecedented amount of wealth

Bernie Sanders (1941-now, politician):
5. "How many times have you heard the refrain, 'America is broke'? Baloney... in reality, we are the richest country in the world, and we are richer than at any other time in history. The U.S. has a record-breaking $88 trillion in total wealth... " (Our Revolution, 2016)

Bernie Sanders (1941-now, politician):
6. "In 1979, the top one-tenth of 1 percent owned about 7 percent of the wealth in this country. Now it owns 22 percent." (Our Revolution, 2016)

John Kenneth Galbraith (1908-2006, economist):
7. "In recent times, no problem has been more puzzling to thoughtful people than why, in a troubled world, we make such poor use of our affluence." (The Affluent Society, 1958)

Simone Campbell (1945-now, lawyer):
8. "Hard-working people are trying their best, but those who hold on to capital are not sharing the wealth, and there is the problem." (Interviewed by Al Sharpton on Media Matters for America, 2014)

C. Government finance must be audited to ensure transparency

Henry George (1839-1897, economist)
9. "To prevent government from being corrupt and tyrannous, its organization and methods should be as simple as possible... and in all its parts it should be kept as close to the people as directly within their control as may be." (Social Problems, 1883)

Louis Brandeis (1856-1941, lawyer)
10. "Publicity is justly commended as a remedy for social and industrial disease. Sunlight is said to be the best of disinfectants; electric light the most efficient policeman." (Other People's Money - And How Bankers Use It, 1914)

James Madison (1751-1836, 4th President of the United States)
11. "If men were angels, no government would be necessary. If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on government would be necessary." (Federalist No. 51, 1788)

D. We should invest in building a strong middle class

Barack Obama (1961-now, 44th President of the United States):
12. "We don't just want everyone to share in America's success, we want everyone to contribute to our success." (State of the Union Address, 2015)

Barack Obama (1961-now, 44th President of the United States):
13. "In a global economy, a country's greatest resource is its people. So by investing in you, this nation can open the door for far more prosperity - because unlocking a nation's potential depends on empowering all its people, especially it's young people." (Yangon University Speech, 2012)

Bernie Sanders (1941-now, politician):
14. "According to a 2007 report by the Federal Revere Bank of Minneapolis, 'The most efficient means to boost the productivity of the workforce 15 to 20 years down the road is to invest in today's youngest children.'" (Our Revolution, 2016)

Bernie Sanders (1941-now, politician):
15. "Today in America, hundreds of thousands of bright young people who have the desire and the ability to get a college education will not be able to do so because their families lack the money." (Our Revolution, 2016)

Arthur MacEwan (1942-now, economist):
16. "It's not hard to figure out what kinds of jobs should be created with government stimulus spending. Prime examples include environmental repair and preservation, education and training and infrastructure repair and extension." (What Would Full Employment Cost? 2015)

E. We should support our most vulnerable citizens

Bernie Sanders (1941-now, politician):
17. "[A nation] is judged by how well it treats its weakest a most vulnerable citizens. A truly great nation is one that is filled with compassion and solidarity." (Our Revolution, 2016)

Bernie Sanders (1941-now, politician):
18. "When people become old, they often become frail and sick. They are unable to work and earn an income. In a civilized society, the older generation - the people who raised us - are entitled, and allowed, to live out their remaining years in dignity and security." (Our Revolution, 2016)

Hillary Clinton (1947-now, politician):
19. "Look at the budget that was just proposed in Washington. It is an attack of unimaginable cruelty on the most vulnerable among us, the youngest, the oldest, the poorest, and hard working people who need a little help to gain or hang on to a decent middle class life." (Wellesley commencement speech, 2017)

Bernie Sanders (1941-now, politician):
20. "Study after study has shown that without stable housing it is much harder for working people to hold down jobs and get the health care they need, and children are put at a profound disadvantage in terms of intellectual and emotional development and school performance... Decent-quality affordable housing should be a right of all Americans." (Our Revolution, 2016)

F. Single-payer healthcare is the best solution

Bernie Sanders (1941-now, politician):
21. "The United States must join the rest of the industrialized world and guarantee health care to every man, woman and child through a Medicare for all single-payer system." (Our Revolution, 2016)

American Medical Student Association:
22. "If Americans believe in an inalienable right to life, how can we tolerate a system that denies people lifesaving medications and treatments?" (The Case for Universal Healthcare, 2009)

Commonwealth Fund:
23. "Despite having the most expensive health care system, the United States ranks last overall among 11 industrialized countries on measures of health system quality, efficiency, access to care, equity, and healthy lives...'" (US Health System Ranks Last Among Eleven Countries, 2014)

Bernie Sanders (1941-now, politician):
24. "The United States has thousands of different health insurance plans, all of which set different reimbursement rates across different networks for providers and procedures. This results in extremely high administrative costs." (Our Revolution, 2016)

Robert Frank (journalist):
25. "The most important source of cost savings under single-payer is that large government entities are able to negotiate much more favorable terms with service providers." (Why Single-Payer Health Care Saves Money, 2017)

G. We should accelerate innovation in critical technologies

Bernie Sanders (1941-now, politician):
26. "This is the stuff we do so well when challenged as a nation, whether by putting a man on the moon, eradicating diseases, or developing the Internet. The U.S. can and must dedicate our engineering know-how to a clean energy revolution, in our universities, in our national energy labs, and in businesses and communities all across the country." (Our Revolution, 2016)

Bill Gates (1955-now, businessman):
27. "The only reason I'm optimistic about [renewable energy] is because of innovation... I want to tilt the odds in our favor by driving innovation at an unnaturally high pace, or more than its current business-as-usual course." (We Need an Energy Miracle, 2015)

Bill Nye (1955-now, science communicator):
28. "Desalination of water could be the key to the future for so may of us humans... We could have all the clean water we wanted for everybody all over the world and we would power pumps with solar power..." (Big Think: Can We Desalinate Water for Human Consumption on a Massive Scale? 2016)

Annie Sneed (journalist):
29. "To limit warming, nations will also likely need to physically remove carbon from the atmosphere. And to do that, they will have to deploy 'negative emissions technology' - technologies that scrub CO2 out of the air." (The Search Is on for Pulling Carbon from the Air, 2016)

H. Public foreign aid is the best foreign policy

Tessie San Martin (nonprofit executive):
30. "Without reliable data we have no way of understanding the magnitude of a problem or evaluating whether and how our programming is helping to address it." (Amen to accountability in foreign aid, 2017)

Mala Yousafzai (1997-now, activist):
31. "Why is it that countries which we call 'strong' are so powerful in creating wars but are so weak in bringing peace? Why is it that giving guns is so easy but giving books is so hard? Why is it that making tanks is so easy, but building schools is so hard?" (Nobel Peace Prize Lecture, 2014)

Max Friedman (historian):
32. "Exclusion from economic gains, making individuals believe that elites are not sharing revenue, may also be another significant factor driving extremism." (Why Current Foreign Aid Benefits Terrorists, 2017)

Kofi Annan (1938-now, 7th Secretary-General for the United Nations):
33. "The international community... allows nearly 3 billion people - almost half of all humanity - to subsist on $2 or less a day in a world of unprecedented wealth." (Can Globalization Really Solve Our Problems? 2002)

Jimmy Carter (1924-now, 39th President of the United States):
34. "Human rights is the soul of our foreign policy, because human rights is the very soul of our sense of nationhood." (Remarks on the 30th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1978)

Saturday, December 9, 2017

What is science? (2nd attempt)

In an earlier post, I tried to define the word 'science', but I now disagree with my previous definition. Here is my previous definition:
Science is the systematic analysis of reality
I believe this definition is too broad to accurately capture the concept of 'science'. There are many types of systematic analyses that do not qualify as science. For example, a telephone bill statement which has many statistics, allows you to systematically analyze your telephone usage, but intuitively we know this is not science. Another example is systematically analyzing baseball player statistics, but intuitively we also know this not science. Here is my new definition:
Science is knowledge established through controlled experiments and verification
When people talk about science, I believe this is what they are talking about. This definition does not create a strict boundary between science and non-science because in my opinion the word 'controlled' is subjective. For some experiments, controlling every variable is impossible.

Is economics a science? For the most part I believe the answer is no. I think the closest thing we have to controlled experiments in economics is quasi-experimental analyses which look at real world events that resemble controlled experiments. But the problem with these analyses is that are there's always too many confounding variables that could distort results. In the real world, every economic event is affected by countless factors. I can't imagine how a researcher can be sure that every potential confounding variables is controlled even with statistical techniques.

The rest of this post is a collection of definitions of science from philosophers and dictionaries.

Definitions of science from philosophers

Karl Popper (1902-1994)
1. "...statements or systems of statements, in order to be ranked as scientific, must be capable of conflicting with possible, or conceivable observations." (Conjectures and refutations. The growth of scientific knowledge, 1962)

Thomas Kuhn (1902-1996)
2. "...the role in scientific research of what I have since called 'paradigms'. These I take to be universally recognized scientific achievements that for a time provide model problems and solutions for a community of practitioners." (The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 1962)

Paul Feyerabend (1924-1994)
3. "...the separation of science and non-science is not only artificial but also detrimental to the advancement of knowledge. If we want to understand nature, if we want to master our physical surroundings, then we must use all ideas, all methods, and not just a small selection of them." (Against method, 1975)

Larry Laudan (1941-now)
4. "...there is no demarcation line between science and non-science, or between science and pseudo-science, which would win assent from a majority of philosophers. Nor is there one which should win acceptance from philosophers or anyone else." (The Demise of the Demarcation Problem, 1983)

Paul Thagard (1950-now):
5. "A theory of disciplines which purports to be scientific is pseudoscientific if and only if it has been less progressive than alternative theories over a long period of time and faces many unsolved problems; but the community of practitioners makes little attempt to develop the theory towards solutions of the problems, shows no concern for attempts to evaluate the theory in the relation to others and is selective in considering confirmation and disconfirmation." (Quoted in Science Education by John Gilbert)

William Cecil Dampier (1867-1952)
6. "[Science is] ordered knowledge of phenomena and of the relations between them." (Wikipedia)

Marshall Clagett (1916-2005)
7. "[Science is] first the orderly and systematic comprehension, description and/or explanation of natural phenomena and secondly, the mathematical and logical tools necessary for the undertaking." (Wikipedia)

David Pingree (1933-2005)
8. "Science is a systematic explanation of perceived or imaginary phenomena or else is based on such an explanation. Mathematics finds a place in science only as one of the symbolical languages in which scientific explanations may be expressed." (Wikipedia)

Definitions of science from dictionaries

Oxford Dictionaries
1. "the intellectual and practical activity encompassing the systematic study of the structure and behaviour of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment."

Merriam Webster Dictionary
2. "the state of knowing"

3. "a department of systematized knowledge as an object of study"
4. "a knowledge or a system of knowledge covering general truths"
5. "a system or method reconciling practical ends with scientific laws"
6. "acquaintance with facts, truths, or principles as from study or investigate"

7. "familiarity or conversance, as with a particular subject or branch of learning"
8. "acquaintance or familiarity gained by sight, experience or report"
9. "the fact or state of knowing"
10. "awareness, as of a fact or circumstance"
11. "something that is or may be known"
12. "the body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time"
13. "the observation, identification, description, experimental investigation and theoretical explanation of phenomena"

14. "a systematic method or body of knowledge in a given area"
15. "knowledge, especially that gained through experience"

Cambridge Dictionary
16. "the systematic study of the structure and behavior of the natural and physical world, or knowledge obtained about the world by watching it carefully and experimenting"
17. "the field of study concerned with discovering and describing the world around us by observing and experimenting"

Oxford Learner's Dictionary

18. "knowledge about the structure and behavior of the natural and physical world, based on facts that you can prove, for example by experiments"
19. "a system for organizing the knowledge about a subject"

Collins Dictionary
20. "the study of the nature and behavior of natural things and the knowledge that we obtain about them"

Sunday, November 12, 2017

Fundamentals of reason

This post is a collection of my favorite quotes about reason. When analyzing whether a proposition is true or false, I try to keep these quotes in mind. There are 18 quotes divided into 5 sections:

A. Concepts fit together to infer a proposition (3)
B. Sensory experience is the source of all evidence (3)
C. It's impossible to 100% prove or disprove a proposition (4)
D. Controlled experiments are the best evidence (4)
E. Disagreements are impossible to resolve when people are not being clear about the proposition and the evidence they are using (4)

A. Concepts fit together to infer a proposition

Rene Descartes (1596-1650, philosopher):
1. "Each problem that I solved became a rule, which served afterwards to solve other problems." (Discourse on Method, 1637)

Rudolf Carnap (1891-1970, philosopher):
2. "Verification in science is not, however, of single statements but of the entire system or a sub-system of statements." (The Unity of Science, 1934)

Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951, philosopher):
3. "Bit by bit there forms a system of what is believed, and in that system, some things stand unshakably fast and some are more or less liable to shift. What stands fast does so, not because it is intrinsically obvious or convincing; it is rather held fast by what lies around it." (On Certainty, 1969 posthumous)

B. Sensory experience is the source of all evidence

David Hume (1711-1776, philosopher):
4. "I never can catch myself at anytime without a perception, and never can observe anything but the perception." (A Treatise on Human Nature, 1739)

Immanuel Kant (1724-1804, philosopher):
5. "All our knowledge falls within the bounds of experience." (Critique of Pure Reason, 1781)

Democritus (460-370 BC, philosopher):
6. We know nothing accurately in reality, but [only] as it changes according to the bodily condition, and the constitution of those things that flow upon [the body] and impinge upon it." (Wikiquote)

C. It's impossible to 100% prove or disprove a proposition

Rene Descartes (1596-1650, philosopher):
7. "In order to seek truth, it is necessary once in the course of our life, to doubt, as far as possible, of all things." (Principles of Philosophy, 1644)

Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794, chemist):
8. "The art of concluding from experience and observation consists in evaluating probabilities, in estimating if they are high or numerous enough to constitute proof." (Rapport des commissaires charges par le roi de l'exemen du magnetism animal, 1784)

William of Ockham (1287-1347, philosopher):
9. "You see that I have set out opposing assertions in response to your question and I have touched on quite strong arguments in support of each position. Therefore consider now which seems the more probable to you." (Dialogus, 1494)

David Hume (1711-1776, philosopher):
10. "I weigh the one miracle against the other; and according to the superiority, which I discover, I pronounce my decision and always reject the greater miracle." (An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, 1748)

D. Controlled experiments are the best evidence

Rudolf Carnap (1891-1970, philosopher):
11. "One of the principal tasks of the logical analysis of a given proposition is to find out the method of verification for that proposition." (Philosophy and Logical Syntax, 1935)

Roger Bacon (1219-1292, philosopher):
12. "Experimental science is the queen of sciences, and the goal of all speculation." (Quoted in Science at the Medieval Universities by James Walsch)

Richard Feynman (1918-1988, physicist):
13. "...if you're doing an experiment, you should report everything that you think might make it invalid." (Adapted from a 1974 Caltech commencement address)

Claude Bernard (1813-1878, physiologist):
14. "Indeed, proof that a given condition always precedes or accompanies a phenomenon does not warrant concluding with certainty that a given condition is the immediate cause of that phenomenon. It must still be still established that when this condition is removed the phenomenon will no longer appear." (Introduction a l'Etude de la Medecine Experimental, 1865)

E. Disagreements are impossible to resolve when people are not clear about the proposition and the evidence they are using

Francis Bacon (1561-1626, philosopher):
15. "Truth will sooner come out from error than from confusion." (Novum Organum, 1620)

Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951, philosopher):
16. "To convince someone of the truth, it is not enough to state it, but rather one must find the path from error to truth." (Philosophical Occasions, 1993 posthumous)

Ivor Armstrong Richards (1893-1979, literary critic):
17. "Rhetoric, I shall urge, should be a study of misunderstanding and its remedies." (Philosophy of Rhetoric)

Jane Goodall (1934-now, ethologist):
18. "Especially now when views are becoming more polarized, we must work to understand each other across political, religious and national boundaries." (Quoted in Verge Magazine, 2010)

Sunday, October 15, 2017

What is art?

What is art? This is not an easy question. In our daily lives, sometimes it's difficult to differentiate what is art from non-art. Here is my definition:
Art is a creation that has aesthetic qualities or surreal qualities or portrays real world phenomena
This is not a precise definition because the words 'aesthetic' and 'surreal' are subjective. Aesthetics has to do with the appreciation of beauty, while surreal has to do with the unreal and bizarre. This definition does not apply to the craft interpretation for the word 'art' (for example, the art of investing).

The rest of this post is a collection of definitions of art from dictionaries.

Definitions of art from dictionaries

Merriam Webster
1. "skill acquired by experience, study, or observation"
2. "an occupation requiring knowledge or skill"
3. "the conscious use of skill and creative imagination"
4. "decorative or illustrative elements in printed matter"
5. "the quality, production, expression, or realm according to aesthetic principles"
6. "the class of objects subject to aesthetic criteria"

Oxford Dictionaries
7. "the expression or application of human creative skill and imagination"
8. "the various branches of creative activity, such as painting, music, literature and dance"
9. "subjective of study primarily concerned with human creativity and social life"
10. "a skill at doing a specified thing, typically one acquired through practice"

Cambridge Dictionary
11. "the making or doing of something whose purpose is to bring pleasure to people through their enjoyment of what is beautiful or interesting"

Collins Dictionary
12. "consists of paintings, sculpture, and other pictures or objects that are created for people to look at and admire or think deeply about"

Oxford Learner's Dictionaries
13. "the use of the imagination to express ideas or feelings particularly in painting, drawing or sculpture"
14. "the expression of ideas and emotions through a physical medium, like painting, sculpture, film, dance, writing, photography, or theater"
15. "the creation of beautiful or significant things"
16. "a superior skill that you can learn by study and practice and observation"
17. "the conscious use of the imagination in the production of objects intended to be contemplated or appreciated as beautiful"
18. "a skill that is attained by study, practice or observation"

Thursday, October 12, 2017

Fundamentals of language

This post is a collection of my favorite quotes about language. There are 21 quotes divided into 6 sections:

A. Every word corresponds to a concept (3)
B. Subjective descriptions can be true but not exact to reality (4)
C. Objective descriptions can be exact to reality (3)
D. Grammar enables multiple words to express a more complex concept (3)
E. Ideas come long before the proper words to describe them (4)
F. Language is the frontier of every scientific discipline (4)

A. Every word corresponds to a concept

Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951, philosopher):
1. "Uttering a word is like striking a note on the keyboard of imagination." (Philosophical Investigations)

Albert Einstein (1879-1955, physicist):
2. "Concepts have meaning only if we can point to objects to which they refer and to rules by which they are assigned to these objects." (Ernst Mach Memorial Notice)

Benjamin Whorf (1897-1941, linguist):
3. "We cut nature up, organize it into concepts, and ascribe significance. As we do, largely because we are parties to an agreement to organize it in this way." (Language, Thought and Reality, 1956)

B. Subjective descriptions can be true but not exact to reality

Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951, philosopher):
4. "For remember that in general we don't use language according to strict rules; it hasn't been taught us by means of strict rules either." (The Blue Book)

John Langshaw Austin (1911-1960, philosopher):
5. "Faced with the nonsense question, 'what is the meaning of a word?' and perhaps dimly recognizing it to be nonsense, we are nevertheless not inclined to give it up." (Philosophical Papers, 1979)

Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951, philosopher):
6. "The idea that in order to get clear about the meaning of a general term one had to find the common element in all its applications has shackled philosophical investigation; for it has not only led to no result, but also made the philosopher dismiss as irrelevant the concrete cases, which alone could have helped him understand the usage of the general term." (The Blue Book)

Bernard Williams (1923-2003, philosopher):
7. "[Nietzsche's] aim was to see how far the values of truth could be revalued..." (Truth and Truthfulness, 2002)

C. Objective descriptions can be exact to reality

Dmitri Mendeleev (1834-1907, chemist):
8. "I wish to establish some sort of system not guided by chance but by some sort of definite and exact principle." (Lecture to the Russian Chemical Society)

Michael Faraday (1791-1867, physicist):
9. "I was at first almost frightened when I saw much mathematical force made to bear upon the subject, and then wondered to see that the subject stood it so well." (Letter to James Clerk Maxwell, 1857)

W. E. B. Du Bois (1868-1964, sociologist):
10. "When you have mastered numbers, you will in fact no longer be reading numbers, any more than you read words when reading books. You will be reading meanings." (Brainy Quote)

D. Grammar enables multiple words to express a more complex concept

Stanley Fish (1938-now, literary critic):
11. "Before the words slide into their slots, they are just discrete items pointing everywhere and nowhere." (How to Write a Sentence and How to Read One, 2011)

William Cobbet (1763-1835, journalist):
12. "Grammar, perfectly understood enables us, not only to express our meaning fully and clearly, but so to express it as to enable us to defy the ingenuity of man to give to our words any other meaning than that which we ourselves intend them to express." (A Grammar of the English Language)

Rudolf Carnap (1891-1970, philosopher):
13. "By the logical syntax of language, we mean the formal theory of the linguistic forms of that language - the systematic statement of the formal rules which govern it together with the development of the consequences which follow from these rules." (Logical Syntax of Language, 1934)

E. Ideas come long before the proper words to express them

Marianne Moore (1887-1972, poet):
14. "I've always felt that if a thing had been said the best way, how can you say it better?" (Paris Review Interview, 1960)

Sallie McFague (1933-now, theologian):
15. "A metaphor is a word used in an unfamiliar context to give us a new insight; a good metaphor moves us to see our world in an extraordinary way." (Speaking in Parables, 1975)

Marlene Dietrich (1901-1992, actress):
16. "I love quotations because it is a joy to find thoughts one might have beautifully expressed with much authority by someone recognizably wiser than oneself." (Quoted in Presidential Wit and Wisdom by Brallier and Chabert)

John Searle (1932-now, philosopher):
17. "You cannot think clearly if you cannot speak and write clearly." (The Storm Over the University, 1990)

F. Language is the frontier of every scientific discipline

Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900, philosopher):
18. "We have seen how it is originally language which works on the construction of concepts, a labor taken over in later ages by science." (On Truth and Lie in an Extra-Moral Sense, 1873)

Stephen Jay Gould (1941-2002, biologist):
19. "The nature of true genius must lie in the elusive capacity to construct these new modes from apparent darkness." (The Flamingo's Smile, 1985)

Rachel Carson (1907-1964, biologist):
20. "If there is poetry in my book about the sea, it is not because I deliberately put it there, but because no one could write truthfully about the sea and leave out the poetry." (National Book Award for Nonfiction speech, 1952)

Felix Frankfurter (1882-1965, lawyer):
21. "All our work, our whole life is a matter of semantics, because words are the tools with which we work, the material of which laws are made, out of which the constitution was written. Everything depend on our understanding of them." (Quoted in Readers' Digest, 1964)